Imam Ali and Caliphate

Declaration of Imam Ali (a) as Vicegerent 

 "It is generally supposed that the Holy Prophet (s) had not expressly designated anyone as his successor in the spiritual and temporal government, but this notion is framed on an incorrect comprehension of fact, for there is abundant evidence that many a time the Prophet had openly indicated Imam Ali for Vicegerency." (The Spirit of Islam, p. 292)

The First Occasion was when the Holy Prophet was ordered by Allah to invite his kith and kin to Islam openly. This occasion is called Da'wat Zul Ashira (propagation of the religion amongst the relatives). In the words of Rev: Sale, the Holy Prophet said: "God had commanded me to call you unto Him; who therefore, among you will be assisting me herein and become my brother and my vicegerent? All of them, hesitating and declining the matter, Ali at length rose up, and declared that he would be his assistant and threatened those who should oppose him. Muhammad upon this embraced Ali with great demonstration of affection, and desired all those present to hear him and to obey him as his Deputy."

Thus at this occasion of the introduction of Islam as a religion, Imam Ali (AS was declared by the Holy Prophet (s) as his Deputy. The value of Ali's support to the Holy Prophet and his designation as a vicegerent at this stage is fairly well assessed by theologians, historians and thinkers. [30]

The Second Occasion was that at the time of Ali's conquest of Khaybar. The words of the Holy Prophet (s) quite clearly, positively and expressively give out his opinion about Imam Ali and his desire to leave him as the guardian and the propagator of this mission. He said, "You are from me and I am from you, you will inherit me..... You are to me what Aaron was to Moses.... You will be nearest to me on the Day of Judgement and next to me on the fountain of Kauthar, enmity against you is enmity against me, a war against you is a war against me.... You have as much faith in Allah as I have.. You are door to me". What more can one say? Can there by anything more forceful, more eloquent, more poignant with clear indications and more categorical than the words which the Holy Prophet (s) has used? Do they leave any shadow of doubt?? Has the Prophet (s) ever used such words for anybody else?

The Battle of Tabuk: The Third instance was the event of the occasion of Tabuk. To understand the occasion and the cause of remarks of the Prophet (s) it is necessary to know the historical background of the incident. It was the summer of 9 A.H. and the Holy Prophet (s) had received the information that the Roman King who was mobilizing his forces to invade the Islamic State and many Arab tribes were gathering around him. He decided to face them in their own land and not to allow them to trample the Muslim State so that they might not destroy the lands through which they pass.

The situation had become very critical because there was famine in Hijaz, Ta'if and Yemen. The Munafiqin (the hypocrites) were carrying on intensive propaganda campaign and trying to make the people believe that the famine was the sign that Allah was displeased with Muslims and wants to exterminate them with the worst form of death (cannibalism). And in case of a defeat against the Roman armies there was eminent danger of revolt. It was imperative that the State should be left in the hands of a faithful and powerful guardian otherwise there was every possibility of being crushed between the two enemies. The Prophet therefore decided that Imam Ali should act as a regent in his place and the people might also realize that in the opinion of the Holy Prophet (s), none could look after the temporal as well as spiritual welfare of the Muslims during his absence, except Ali (a). He called Ali and told him that he would have to act as the last line of defence for him and Islam, saying "O Ali! Nobody could guard the Muslim State but you or I". [31]

Imam Ali's stay at Medina disappointed the hypocrites and as they constituted the majority of those left behind by the Holy Prophet (s) they started a cold war. They started their propaganda by saying that the Holy Prophet (s) had lost faith in Imam Ali (a) and had therefore left him behind and that it was certain that the Prophet (s) was going to suffer a defeat. Imam Ali naturally felt anxious for the Prophet and annoyed at aspersions against him. He left Medina immediately, met the Prophet at the place of Juraf and told him all that was said in his absence. Thereupon, the Holy Prophet (s) said: "Ali! They are lying against you as they have lied against me, they have called me an epileptic, a magician, a sorcerer and a necromancer, and have always styled me as a liar. I have appointed you as my vicegerent and successor over all which I have left behind. Are you not satisfied to realize that you are to me what Aaron was to Moses." [32]

Ghadir Khum: The Fourth time was -- "Notably the occasion of the return journey from the performance of the "Farewell Pilgrimage", during a halt at a place called Khum, he had convoked an assembly of the people accompanying him, and used the words which could leave no doubt as to his intentions regarding a successor. "Ali," said the Prophet, "is to me what Aaron was to Moses. The Almighty Allah be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foes; help those who help him and frustrate those who betray him." [33]

I would be doing a great disservice to the cause of truth and to the history of Islam if I do not sketch an outline of this incident because more than 50,000 people had gathered on the occasion of Ghadir Khum and many of them narrated all that took place there, among those narrators, we find such luminaries as Caliph Abu Bakr, Caliph Umar, Caliph Uthman, Zubair ibn Awam, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Ummul Momineen Ayesha, Hassan ibn Thabir. From these narrators, about 153 historians, biographers, collectors of the Prophet's traditions and authors of Seeras, Mu'jums and Masanid from the First Century A.H. right upto 1300 A.H. have narrated the whole incident in details and have drawn practically the same inference as the author of "The Spirit of Islam".

The Holy Prophet (s) was returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage and had reached the place of Khum, (which in the words of ibn Khallakan, the famous historian and geographer, is a valley lying between Mecca and Medina and in the vicinity of Ju'fa). It contains a pond (Ghadir) near which the Prophet pronounced his invocation. This took place on the 18th of Zil Hijjah and on this day, the anniversary of Ghadir (Eidul Ghadir) is celebrated every year by the Muslims.

At Ghadir Khum, the Holy Prophet (s) suddenly made his camel stop and said that just then a message of Allah was revealed to him which must be immediately conveyed to the Muslims. He dispatched messengers towards those who had gone ahead and those who were following him gradually to join him at once. When all of them were gathered he performed the Noon-prayers in that blazing hot summer sun. Then a pulpit was erected for him and from this eminence, he delivered a sermon which is considered as a masterpiece of Arabic literature and a brief survey of what the Holy Prophet (s) had taught and achieved for the Muslims.

There he said that he had just then received the revelation which said:

"O Prophet! Proclaim the message which has been sent down to you from your Lord, for if you fail to convey it, it would be as if you have not at all performed the duty of Prophethood. Allah will protect you, (your mission) from evil persons. Indeed Allah does not guide the unbelievers." (Surah Maida, 5:67)

The Holy Prophet was standing there to convey that message to the Muslims and to perform the duty he was ordered to perform. Continuing the sermon, he said:

"O people! Shortly I shall be called (to the Heaven) and if I go back, I shall have to give an account as to how I have conveyed His Message to you and you (in your turn) will also be asked as to how you have accepted and carried my teachings. Now tell me what you will say". Thereupon all the people with one voice declared, "O Prophet of Allah! We testify and declare that you have conveyed the message of Allah in details, you have strived your utmost to guide us to the right path and taught us to follow it. You were most kind to us and you never wished for us but good. May Allah repay you for all that".

Thereupon he asked the gathering, "Do you not testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is His creature, His servant and His Prophet, that there is Paradise and Hell, that death will overtake everyone of you, that you will be brought back from your graves, that the Day of Resurrection will surely dawn and human beings will be resurrected from their graves to account for their deeds?" The people declared, "We believe and testify to all of this". Hearing this declaration he said:

"I am leaving amongst you two most important things worthy of obedience, the Quran and my progeny (the Chosen descendants). Take care how you treat them, they will not separate from each other till they reach me on the Fountain of Kauthar".

Then he added, "The Almighty Allah is my Lord (Maula) and I am the guardian of all the Muslims and have more right and power on their lives than their ownselves; do you believe in this assertion of mine?" They all in one voice replied, "Yes O Prophet of Allah!" Thrice he asked the same question and thrice he received the same reply. On this solemn affirmation he said: "Hear and remember that of whomsoever I am the guardian, Ali too is his guardian. He is to me what Aaron was to Moses. Oh Allah! Be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foes, help those who help him and frustrate those who betray him", while saying this he raised Imam Ali so that people may have a look at him, He will be the master and guardian of those who believe the Holy Prophet to be their master and guardian. Thereupon the Prophet (s) received the revelation:

"On this day, I have perfected your religion, completed My favours to you and have chosen Islam as your religion." (Surah Maida, 5:5)

After performing this ceremony and receiving the above revelation, the Holy Prophet (s) came down the pulpit, prostrated before Allah in prayers and ordered to pitch a tent. In this tent Imam Ali (a) was made to take his seat and people were ordered to pay homage to him and to address him as "Ameerul Momineen" (The Commander of the Faithful). The first person to congratulate and address him as such was Umar ibn Khattab who said, "I congratulate you, O Ali! Today you have become my master and commander of every Muslim man and woman"

Imam Ali and the Election for Caliphate 

 When Imam Ali with Bani Hashim were busy with the last rites of the burial of the Prophet of Allah, some immigrants and some Ansar gathered at Saqifa, and decided that Abu Bakr be the First Caliph. Imam Ali (a) was asked to accede to this decision. He refused.

Abu Sufyan came to Medina and went to Abbas (uncle of the Prophet) and said, "These people have taken away the caliphate from Bani Hashim. You are uncle of the Prophet of Allah and oldest among the Quraish, you have been kind to them also, they will accept your lead. Let you and I swear allegiance to Ali. If anybody opposes us we shall kill him."

They both came to Ali and Abu Sufyan said, "Ali if you accept our proposal, put out your hand and let us swear the oath of allegiance." Hearing this Imam Ali (a) replied: "Abu Sufyan! I swear by Allah the Almighty that you, through this proposal, want to create serious dissension amongst the Muslims. You have always tried to harm Islam, I do not need your sympathies and your help." [57] (See also Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 5)

Imam Ali (a) realized that any serious dissension at this stage would harm the cause of Islam considerably. He had before him the example of the Holy Prophet (s) and the Treaty of Hudaybiya and had been foretold by the Holy Prophet of all that would happen. "The Holy Prophet had told Imam Ali: "Your position is like that of Ka'bah. People (Muslims) go to Ka'bah but that august House never approaches anyone. Therefore after my death, if people come to you and swear the oath of allegiance you accept it and if they do not come to you and swear the oath of allegiance, then you do not go to them." [58]

The Holy Prophet had advised Imam Ali (a) that, "After me you will have to face severe sufferings, but do not get disheartened and do not lose patience; and when you find people craving for and trying their utmost to secure worldly gains, you mould your life for the Hereafter." [59]

Imam Ali (a) loved Islam as intensely as the Holy Prophet (s) had loved it. He could not, therefore for the sake of worldly kingdom endanger Islam. He knew thoroughly well that a civil war at that stage would give chances to the Jewish clans of Bani Nazir and Bani Qurayza on one side and the Christian tribes of Najran and Syria supported by the Byzantine armies on the other, and the Munafiqin (hypocrites) and fresh converts on the third to simply take advantage of the situation. When they would find the Muslims busy killing each other they would literally cut them to pieces and Islam would totally disappear as a Message of peace. He wanted the Arabs to remain in the fold of Islam even with the desires of making their worldly position good, and wanted the enemies of Islam to realize that Islam was powerful enough to defend itself even after the sad demise of the Holy Prophet (s). Therefore he was willing to accept every calamity for Islam and to retire to seclusion. The advice he gave to his uncle Abbas to be found in Nahjul Balagha wherein he told him not to join the turmoil.

According to Ave Sena (Abu Ali Sina), the famous Arab philosopher, mathematician and physician, Imam Ali (a) and the Holy Quran were the two miracles of Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah. Life of Imam Ali (a) at every stage was a mirror -- like reflection of the life of the Holy Prophet (s). The days of Badr, Uhud, Khaybar and Hunain were not long passed and the hero still had the same courage, valour, bravery and strength with him, he could have jumped at the proposal of Abu Sufyan. But had he done so, he would not have been Ali ibn Abu Talib, the man "Who loved Allah and His Prophet and was loved by Allah and His Prophet". [60] But unfortunately his feelings were not reciprocated.

Grave events took place when Imam Ali (a) refused to accede to the decision of Saqifa.

Imam Ali during the reigns of the first three Caliphs 

 The events of the 12 A.H. upto 35 A.H.: Imam Ali (a) led a very simple and secluded life. In the beginning, he spent his days compiling the verses of the Holy Quran as they were revealed upon the Holy Prophet of Allah.

Once when Abu Sufyan found that Imam Ali (a) was not paying attention to him, he tried to get in the good books of the government and his eldest son Yazid was appointed as the Governor of Syria and on his death, his brother Muawiyah was appointed on the same post.

During the regime of Abu Bakr, and more often during the regime of Umar, whenever Imam Ali (a) was consulted, like a true Muslim, he offered his sincere advice.

Though Bani Hashim were never given any post or place of honour in the government, yet Imam Ali (a) did not mind this indifference and whenever a critical problem arose and his counsel was sought to be cooperated whole-heartedly.

The author of "The Spirit of Islam" says: "From the commencement of the Islamic preaching, Imam Ali had extended the utmost consideration and friendship to the conquered. After the Battle of Qadsiya, Ali used to devote his share of prize money to redemption of captives, and repeatedly with his counsels and persuasive intervention, he induced Caliph Umar to lighten the burden of the citizens and the captives".

The historians say: "Till 17 A.H. no era was fixed by the Muslims to designate their years. Somtimes Amul Fil, (year of Abyssinian invasion of Mecca) was considered as the beginning of the era, at other times the Battle of Fijar (a pre-Islamic encounter between Arab clans), while a period of repairs carried on to Ka'bah was considered the year to mark the era. When this confusion was brought to the notice of Caliph Umar, he consulted Imam Ali (a) who told him to begin the Muslim era with the commencing of the year of Migration (of the Holy Prophet) to Medina.

Once people went to call Caliph Umar, saying that a lot of jewels and valuable articles and attachment are in Ka'bah; if this could be converted into currency, and be used for arming the armies, it would prove to be a very useful asset. When Imam Ali's advice was sought, he said:

"These articles were there during the times of Prophet Muhammad (s) but he did not touch them. Though Muslims were poorer than they are now, and though they were in more need of arms and mounts, than you are in need of, yet the Holy Prophet (s) did not make use of these ornaments for such purposes. It shows that the Prophet of Allah did not appreciate such appreciation. You also do not do it". (See Nahjul Balagha, Saying 265)

Hearing this Caliph Umar said: "O Ali! Had you not been here, we would have suffered a disgrace." [63]

On the occasion of the invasion of Rome, when Caliph Umar sought his counsel as to the feasibility of heading the army as the Commander-in-Chief, he advised him to be at the helm of State affairs and to send some experienced general as a commander. This advice is narrated in Sermon 132 in Nahjul Balagha. Similarly at the time of invasion of Persia, he counselled Caliph Umar not to leave the capital and to send somebody else. (See Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 144)

The historians have cited several such cases [64] where Imam Ali's counsel was sought for and he sincerely gave his advice. Here I want to relate only one case which shows in what high esteem Ali held the value of the knowledge acquried, collected and preserved by man in the fields of philosophy, science, history, geography and ethics.

There was a fairly large library at Iskandria in Egypt. It contained between five to seven thousand books on papyri leaves and parchments, a very large library indeed when compared with the standard of literacy and education of those days. It contained books on chemistry, astronomy, irrigation, engineering, physics, philosophy and on various religions. [65]

When Amr ibn Aas, conquered Egypt, he enquired as to what was to be done with those books. Orders were issued from the Center, that "If these books are according to the Holy Quran, (i.e. they say the same things which this Holy Book has said) then we do not need them and if they say anything contrary to the Holy Quran, then we do not want them. Hence, in any case, they ought to be burnt". [66]

"When Imam Ali (a) heard the news of this, he tried to pursue them to refrain from issuing such an order. He told them, "These books are treasures of knowledge and they do not contradict the Holy Quran, on the contrary, the knowledge contained therein would act as commentaries of this Holy Book and would assist and help in further explanations of the knowledge as presented by the Holy Prophet. Knowledge is an asset for human beings and a birth right of man. It should not be destroyed." [67]

Akhbarul Ulama further states that his suggestion was not accepted and those books were distributed among one thousand hot-water baths of Alexandria to be burnt as fire-wood.

Events of 11 A.H. upto 33 A.H.: At his death, Caliph Abu Bakr nominated Caliph Umar as his successor to the caliphate and Caliph Umar on his death had appointed a board of six members to select his successor; the board consisted of Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqas, Usman ibn Affan, Talha ibn Abdullah, Zubair ibn Awam and Ali ibn Abi Talib. The following were the terms of reference for this council:

(i) If they unanimously select a person he will be designated as the caliph.

(ii) If there is no consensus, then that person will be the caliph for whom Abdur Rahman ibn Awf and his party vote.

(iii) If any five of them select one person and the sixth disagrees then the dissenter should be immediately killed.

(iv) If any four of them select one person and the two disagree then those two should be killed.

(v) If there is equal division then the casting vote would be that of Abdullah ibn Umar (his son). Abdur Rahman ibn Awf was the cousin of Caliph Usman and husband of the aunt of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqas and Zubair was son-in-law of Caliph Abu Bakr. Abdul Rahman ibn Awf declared that he is not standing as a candidate to the caliphate. [68]

In the council, opinions were equally divided in favour of Imam Ali (a) and Usman ibn Affan. Abdur Rahman ibn Awf asked Imam Ali, "If you are selected as a caliph, do you promise that you will act according to the Holy Quran and the traditions and orders of the Holy Prophet and according to the rulings and decisions of the previous two caliphs?"

Imam Ali (a) replied, "So far as the Holy Quran and the orders and traditions of the Holy Prophet are concerned, I agree to abide by them and follow them faithfully and sincerely, but so far as the rulings and decisions of the previous two caliphs are concerned, if these are according to the orders of Allah or the Holy Prophet who could dare arefuse them and if they are against the orders of Allah or the Holy Prophet, who would dare accept and follow them? I refuse to bind myself with those rulings and decisions. I shall act according to my knowledge and my discretion."

Then Abdur Rahman asked the same question to Usman. He agreed not only to act according to the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Holy Prophet but also to implicitly follow the rulings and the decisions of the previous two caliphs. Then Abdur Rahman declared that Usman is selected as a caliph." [69]

Justice Sayyid Amir Ali says:

"That the choice of electorate fell upon Usman, a member of the Umayyid family. (1st Muharram 24 A.H. / 7th November 644 A.D). His election proved in the end the ruin of Islam. He fell at once under the influence of his clan. He was guided entirely by his secretary and son-in-law Marwan who had once been expelled by the Prophet (s) for the breach of trust. With his usual patriotism and devotion to the faith, Ali gave his adhesion to Usman as soon as he was elected. Usman dismissed most of the lieutenants employed Umar and appointed in their place incompetent and worthless members of his own family. The weakness of the center and the wickedness of the favourites was creating great anxiety among the people. Loud complaints began pouring into the capital. Imam Ali (a) pleaded and expostulated several times with the caliph the manner in which he allowed the government to fall into the hands of the unworthy favourites but Usman under the influence of his evil genius Marwan, paid no heed to these counsels." [70]

Twice Imam Ali (a) was asked to leave Medina and to go to a village near it and twice he was called back to intervene between the ruler and the ruled, in a few sermons in Nahjul Balagha he has related these facts. (See Sermon 237)

To continue the version of "The Short History of the Saracens",

"At last a deputation from the provinces arrived in Medina to demand redress. They were sent back with promises. On their way home, they intercepted a letter of Marwan, purporting to bear the seal of the caliph, containing directions to the local governors to behead the leaders of the deputation on their arrival at their destinations. Furious at this treachery, they returned to Medina and demanded the surrender of Marwan. And this demand was enforced even by members of the house of Umayya. [71] The ill-fated Usman met this demand with stern refusal. Enraged at what they believed to be the complicity of the caliph, they besieged him at his home".

Narrating the details of the siege and the murder of Caliph Usman, the historians say, "At this hour of peril, the Umayyads deserted the old chief and some fled towards Syria and that Muawiyah, though ordered by the caliph, did not come to his help, on the contrary, the contingent which he sent to Medina came under instructions to stop and stay at a place thirty miles away from Medina and wait for further orders which never arrived until the caliph was killed, and then the contingent was called back. But Imam Ali (a) sent water and food to the caliph during the siege and later as per his orders, Caliph Usman was bravely defended by his sons and dependants, and the insurgents had great difficulty in making any impression on the defenders. Hence, on the 18th Zilhid, 34 A.H., some of these besiegers scaled a wall of a neighbour's house, entered the house of the caliph and killed him inside his house". [72]

The people who were furious against Caliph Usman were: Talha, Zubair ibn Awam and Amr ibn Aas.

Talha: He played an important role in the siege and the stoppage of water. He was commanding the group of the people who were bent upon killing Caliph Usman and on that account Marwan killed him later in the Battle of Jamal. [73] He later came out as the avenger of the murder of Usman and carried on the propaganda that Imam Ali (a) was responsible for his murder. He was one of the chief instigators of the Battle of Jamal. He had insinuated people to kill Caliph Usman with the hope of succeeding to Caliphate, and when he was frustrated in it, he instigated a revolt against Imam Ali (a). (See Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 172 and its Explanation.)

Zubair ibn Awam: He was the sworn enemy of Caliph Usman. Later Zubair with motives like those of Talha, staged a revolt against Imam Ali and was the prime mover for the Battle of Jamal. In the battlefield of Jamal, when Imam Ali (a) reminded him of the orders given to him by the Holy Prophet (s) about him (Ali), he left the battlefield, and while he was riding away to Medina, he was killed by Amr ibn Jurmuz, who was neither in Imam Ali's army nor his companion. Imam Ali (a) felt sad at Zubair's death and said: "Though he later turned into a bitter enemy of mine yet in early days of Islam, he was a good defender of the cause of religion." [74]

Amr ibn Aas: He was the third bitter enemy of Usman. Tabari gives a detailed account of the way he insulted the caliph in the mosque and says, "Nobody was more pleased at the murder of Caliph Usman then Amr ibn Aas." The reason was that he had been deposed from the Governorship of Egypt by the third Caliph. Later Amr ibn Aas joined Muawiyah, as a claimant for retribution of the murder of Caliph Usman.

When the events from the year 11 A.H. upto 34 A.H. were moulding their course, Imam Ali (a) took no part in the affairs of the State. In the words of "The History of Saracens",

"He was endeavouring in Medina to give an intellectual turn to the newly developed energy of the Saracenic race. In the public mosque at Medina, he delivered weekly lectures on philosophy, logic, history, explanation of the traditions of the Holy Prophet and the verses of the Holy Quran as well as on Muslim law and rhetorics. Thus he formed the nucleus of the intellectual movement which displayed itself in such great force in the later days."

Those lectures and sermons were compiled within forty years of his death by Zayd ibn Wahb Juhni. [75] Many of them were lost, but some of them are preserved in Nahjul Balagha.[76]

Caliphate restored to Imam Ali (a) 

 Five days after the death of Caliph Usman, by a unanimous election, in which representatives from Basra, Kufa, Egypt and Hijaz took part, Imam Ali (a) was selected as a caliph. This event took place on the 24th Zilhij, 34 A.H. (See Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 226)

Eric Schroeder says:

"Five days after the murder of Caliph Usman, the people gathered together and decided, "We know no fitter man to be Imam than Ali but he will not take the burden of Imamate." Answered some, "press him home till he consents". They all gathered at Ali's house with such eagerness that they were pushing and crushing each other, they called Ali out and said, "If we go our homes again without an Imam and a caliph, such a strife will stir as will never again be stirred, you will have to consent to be our Imam and Vicegerent of Allah". Ali replied, "Small longings have I for this authority, yet the believers must have a chief; and right gladly will I accept temporal authority of another of Talha".

"Nay thou hast more right than I", said Talha. One who stood by, forced open Ali's palm and Talha swore the oath of allegiance to Imam Ali (a). Zubair did the like and from his house , they brought Ali to the mosque and everybody once again thronged round him to swear the oath of allegiance to him as their Imam and caliph." [77]

--------------------

References

 [30] Tarikh Tabari, vol. IXX, p.68; Tafsir Ma'alimut Tanzil, p.663; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hambal, vol. I, p.163; Tarikh Tabari, vol. II, p. 216; Mustadrak Hakim, vol. III, p. 133; Tarikh Kamil, vol. II, p. 26; Tarikh Abul Fida, vol. I, p. 116

[31] Mustadrak Hakim; Isti'ab, Allama ibn Abdul Barr; Izalatul Khifa, Shah Waliyullah; Kanzul Ammal, Allama Ali Muttaqi; Tazkiratul Khawasul A'aimma, Sibt ibn Jawzi.

[32] Sahih Bukhari, para 145, p. 387 and para 18, p. 89.

[33] The Spirit of Islam, p. 292.

[56] Kitab-al-Irshad, Shaykh Mufid

[57] For detailed account of this event refer to: Tarikh Tabari, vol. III, pp. 202, 303; Tarikh Khulafa, p. 45; Kanzul Ammal, vol. III, p. 140.

[58] Usudul Ghabah fi Tamizis Sahaba, Allama Ali ibn Muhammad, vol. IV, p.31;

[59] Madarijun Nabuwwah, Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlavi, vol. II, p. 511.

[60] Ma'arijun Nabuwwah

[63] Rabi'ul Abrar, Allama Zamakhshari

[64] Izalatul Khifa, sub. II, pp. 268-9; Riyazun Nuzrah, vol. II, pp. 194-9; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hambal, vol. II, p. 231; Al-Ist'ab, Allama Abdul Barr, vol. II, p. 474; Ihya'ul Ulum, Imam Ghazali.

[65] Tabaqatul Umam, Qazi Abdul Qasim Saad ibn Ahmad Undulusi, (462 AH); Kashfuz Zunun, Hani Khalifa Kulpi, vol. I, Preface, p. 24, (printed Egypt); Al-Fahrist, ibn Nadim, p. 334, (printed Egypt); Akhbarul Ulama wa Akhbarul Hukama, Jamaluddin alias Ibn Qitfi, pp. 232-3 (printed Egypt and Liepzieg, Germany); Kitab Imamul Azam, Hafizuddin Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Shahal alias Ibn Bazzazul Kurmi (827 AH), vol. I, p. 37, (printed Hyderabad, India); Miftahus Sa'adah and Misbahus Siyadah, Allama Ahmad ibn Mustafa, vol. I, p. 241 (printed Hyderabad, India).

[66] Akhbarul Ulama wa Akhbarul Hukama, Ibnul Qufti, pp. 232-3, (printed Egypt and Germany)

[67] Tabaqatul Umum, Qazi Said Undulusi; Ayatul Bayyinah, Mohsinul Mulk; The History of Muhammad ibn Abduh, edited by Allama Rashid Raza, Editor of Almanar, vol. I, p. 535.

[68] Al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba Daynuri (270 AH) p. 26; History of Ibn Khaldun, second part pp. 134-136 (printed Egypt)

[69] Tarikh Tabari, vol. V, pp. 35-38 and vol. XIV, p. 590; Ibn Khaldun, pp. 134-136; Tarikh Abul Fida, p. 349; Rawzatus Safa, vol. II, p. 98

[70] A Short History of the Saracen, Justice Amir Ali, p. 46

[71] Murujuz Zahab, Mas'udi

[72] Tarikh Khamis, vol. II, pp. 261-2; Tarikh Khulafa, Jalaluddin Suyuti, p. 108; Murujuz Zahab, Mas'udi; Riyazun Nuzrah, vol. II, p. 125

[73] Tarikh Tabari, vol. VI, p. 154; Kamil ibn Athir, vol. IV, p. 70; Ibn Khaldun, vol. II, p. 397;

[74] Mustadrak Hakim, vol. II, p. 118; al-Imamah vas Siyasah, vol. VI, p. 58; Murujuz Zahab, Mas'udi, vol. II, p. 11

[75] Rijalul Kabir

[76] Mas'udi

 [77] Muhammad's People, Eric Schroeder, printed in England, 1955.